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Our knowledge of Nichanian, a once important but now forgotten artist, is at best fragmentary. 159 Also important to note is that the capitalisation of the letters of the signature merely conformed to considerations of the house style of the newspaper (where all contributors’ names were capitalised), and therefore did not signify a sentimental outburst., 1912, vol. Yet, his renown in 1890 Constantinople becomes instantly apparent in the opening paragraph of Pashalian’s ) [B]rothers in the Oriental Bazaar in Bolis36. as a representation of Ottoman Armenia as imagined from the vantage point of a Constantinople intellectual produced at a critical moment in Ottoman history, the late 1880s, when the various facets of the Ottoman State’s interrelationship with its Armenian subjects took on an especially perilous turn.16 The situating of the artist at the heart of the late nineteenth century Ottoman Armenian Realist17 19. Thus accepted truths, about a movement erroneously viewed solely as literary, and accounts, that ignore the fundamentally visual roots of Realism, are challenged in this essay. The purpose of this essay, itself the product of a conspiracy between accident, curiosity, serendipity and method, is to counter such simplistic accounts, where everything is projected through a distorted, “national”, lens, by delving deep. Careful and nuanced readings of the painting also aim to forestall the indiscriminate, hasty and superficial blanket application of overarching labels such as “Orientalist”, “Realist” or “provincial” when considering work such as Nichanian’s ’s “Eastern” setting, elaborate ethnographic detail and native colour might invite comparisons to Western “Orientalist” painting the artist’s complex identities and environment make such a designation anything but straightforward.15 A “Realist” label, meanwhile, encouraged by Nichanian’s proximity to Pashalian and of his familiar urban cosmopolitan Pera, but instead of an imagined provincial scene, with the very word “provincial” pointing to distance and a vantage point of a perceived centre looking outwards, towards a peripheral location. Its almost total exclusion from art historiography, of never having been awarded anything resembling serious consideration since Pashalian’s 1890 review (owing admittedly in part to the absence of the original painting28) is particularly glaring, and highlights the deeply problematic nature of nationalist Armenian and Turkish art historiographies, and the failure thus far of Western-centric art histories in their engagement with non-Western, in this instance Ottoman, art production in any meaningful manner.29 In closing, to represent the nineteenth century cultural and art history of the Ottoman imperial capital without its native Armenian agents – architects, artists, photographers, writers, patrons, commercial networks, etc. – is akin to writing the history of Vienna without its Jewish actors.30 Yet this is the prevalent approach of still dominant reductive nation-centric art histories, whose tenets are only recently being eroded and dismantled.31 The material presented here, provides a counterpoint to these artificial histories, whether Turkish, Armenian, or other, through firstly, extensive and privileged use of a wealth of Ottoman Armenian and other Armenian language sources, a hitherto untapped resource by art historiography; secondly, through the appropriation of an approach from an anthropological toolkit32, in an attempt to get closer to that which is being studied. 4 The reviewer’s entire focus is on the output of artists from the Armenian community who readily admits that, as a non-connoisseur of the arts, his primary interest lay in the ascertainment of the position held by “Armenian art” at the exhibition.

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A self-portrait, signed and marked Constantinople 1894 [see figure 2], four years after Pashalian’s review, provides a rare and intimate glimpse of how an Ottoman Armenian artist viewed and thought of himself.

L’auteur plaide ici pour une attention accrue au coup de pinceau du peintre, mieux à même de se soustraire à l’œil inquisiteur du censeur que la plume de l’intellectuel, et capable de faire passer des messages – au besoin sous une forme allégorique – sous l’apparence de thèmes ethnographiques.

L’utilisation d’un vaste corpus de sources arméniennes ottomanes jusqu’à présent négligé vise ainsi à permettre une écriture plus nuancée et plus inclusive de l’histoire de l’art ottoman.

This was subsequently confirmed by three black and white reproductions of the painting published during the artist’s lifetime: the first, a mirror image of the painting that appeared in the Tiflis7 Russian Armenian journal .

This picture, that adheres to classical fine art principles and has a simple structure, represents an Armenian hearth, with participants of wedding celebrations.

of the 1880s by delving into the hitherto untested waters of Ottoman visual art production and art criticism.