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Graduated Drivers License Programs: Young drivers account for a disproportionate number of motor vehicle crashes.In order to control this problem, each state has now adapted one or more element of a graduated drivers license (GDL) system, which requires a more rigorous learning period before granting young people between the ages of 15 and 18 a drivers license with full privileges.According to a March 2008 National Highway Traffic Safety Administration report, when there are multiple passengers in vehicles driven by teen drivers, the crash risk is three to five times greater than when driving alone.The risk is greatest for the youngest drivers (age 16 and 17).The reduction was from 0.88 to 0.61 in Massachusetts and from 1.41 to 1.10 in Virginia.Earlier studies by the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia and State Farm, the AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety and the National Institutes of Health also found that restricting passengers lowered the numbers of crashes and other behaviors such as speeding.
During the intermediate stage, when drivers are allowed to drive unsupervised except late at night, crashes were reduced by 9 percent in the first year and 11 percent in the second year.
Crash rates increased by 4 percent, however, during the first year after the drivers graduated to full license status. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) said in May 2012 the death rate fell 68 percent for 16-year old drivers from 1996 to 2010.